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    自閉癥的數據和事實——來自美國CDC的報告(上)

    作者:大語兒童中心

    以下這份報告來自于美國疾病預防與控制中心(CDC),是筆者認為2021年以來數據最全面,表述最清晰的一份報告。分兩次為大家呈現,希望對家長們有所幫助。

    01

    Autism Prevalence

    • In 2021, the CDC reported that approximately 1 in 44 children in the U.S. is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to 2018 data.

    • 1 in 27 boys identified with autism

    • 1 in 116 girls identified with autism


    • Boys are four times more likely to be diagnosed with autism than girls.


    • Most children were still being diagnosed after age 4, though autism can be reliably diagnosed as early as age 2.


    • 31% of children with ASD have an intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] <70), 25% are in the borderline range (IQ 71–85), and 44% have IQ scores in the average to above average range (i.e., IQ >85).


    • Autism affects all ethnic and socioeconomic groups.


    • Minority groups tend to be diagnosed later and less often.


    • Early intervention affords the best opportunity to support healthy development and deliver benefits across the lifespan.


    • There is no medical detection for autism.

    自閉癥患病率

    • 2021年美國CDC發布報告,根據2018年的數據,美國每44個孩子中有一例被確診為自閉癥譜系障礙。


    • 1/27的男孩被診斷自閉癥。


    • 1/116的女孩被診斷自閉癥。


    • 男孩確診自閉癥的可能性是女孩的4倍。


    • 大多數孩子是在4歲后確診的,盡管自閉癥可以在2歲前被診斷。


    • 31%被確診自閉癥的孩子連帶有智力障礙(智商IQ<70),25%的孩子為智商臨界水平(IQ71-85),44%的孩子智商水平高于平均標準(IQ>85)。


    • 自閉癥群體涵蓋所有種族和社會經濟群體。


    • 通常少數族裔群體被診斷得晚一些,而且頻率較低。


    • 早期干預是支持孩子健康發展最好的機會,而且讓他們受益終生。


    • 自閉癥沒有(特定的)醫學檢測。

    02

    What causes autism?

    • Research indicates that genetics are involved in the vast majority of cases. 


    • Children born to older parents are at a higher risk for having autism. 


    • Parents who have a child with ASD have a 2 to 18 percent chance of having a second child who is also affected. 


    • Studies have shown that among identical twins, if one child has autism, the other will be affected about 36 to 95 percent of the time. In non-identical twins, if one child has autism, then the other is affected about 31 percent of the time.  


    • Over the last two decades, extensive research has asked whether there is any link between childhood vaccinations and autism. The results of this research are clear: Vaccines do not cause autism. 

    自閉癥患病原因

    • 研究揭示,遺傳因素與絕大多數病例有關。


    • 高齡父母產下自閉癥患兒的風險更高。


    • 如果第一胎是自閉癥患兒,那么有2%-18%的幾率第二胎也是此譜系的兒童。


    • 研究揭示在同卵雙胞胎中,如果一個孩子罹患自閉癥,那么另一個孩子有36—95%的幾率會受到影響。非同卵雙胞胎中,如果一個孩子罹患自閉癥,另一個孩子受到影響的幾率是31%。


    • 最近20年,更多研究集中在探索兒童早期疫苗接種和自閉癥的關系,結果清晰地表明,疫苗接種不會引發自閉癥。

    03

    Intervention and Supports 

    • Early intervention can improve learning, communication and social skills, as well as underlying brain development.  


    • Applied behavior analysis (ABA) and therapies based on its principles are the most researched and commonly used behavioral interventions for autism. 


    • Many children affected by autism also benefit from other interventions such as speech and occupational therapy. 


    • Developmental regression, or loss of skills, such as language and social interests, affects around 1 in 5 children who will go on to be diagnosed with autism and typically occurs between ages 1 and 3. 

    干預和支持:

    • 早期干預訓練能夠改善孩子的學習、交流和社交技巧,同時促進潛在的大腦發育。


    • 應用行為分析學(ABA)和基于其原理的干預方法是經過深入研究且運用最廣泛的自閉癥譜系障礙行為干預措施。


    • 很多自閉癥譜系障礙的孩子也受益于其他的干預訓練方法,比如言語和作業療法(OT)。


    • 發展衰退和技能缺失,比如語言和社交興趣缺失,影響到1/5將會被確診為自閉癥的孩子,典型的年齡段在1—3歲。

    大道至簡 語出自然
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